Department of Food Processing Punjab
It is believed that the indian Poultry Industry is 5,000 years old, since last 4 decades it began to witness remarkable growth from backyard to poultry industry.
The organised sector of poultry industry is contributing nearly 70% of the total output and the rest 30% in the unorganized sector. The broiler industry is well dominated in southern states in our country with nearly 60-70% total output coming from these states. The layer industry once again is represented more in southern states especially, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra producing nearly 70% of the country's egg production. India's 75% of egg produce is consumed by the 25% population living in urban and semi-urban areas. Presently about 800 hatcheries are operating in the country.
Per capita consumption
In spite of this, with the rise of middle class and increased urbanization people prefer to go for non-vegetarian. About 3 million farmers and 15 million agrarian farmers are employed in the poultry industry that grow poultry ingredients for feed and contribute about Rs 26,000 crore to the national income. India is the fifth largest producer of egg and ninth largest producer of poultry meat. India was positioned 17th in the world poultry production. The Indian poultry production is considered to be the cheapest in the world. Leading broiler integrators in India are as follows:
These companies account for nearly 40% of broiler industry integrators and contracts. Pioneer Poultry group introduced the concept of contract farming in the year 1980 and the concept of integration was introduced by Suguna farms in 1990. Poultry farming came to be accepted as a viable activity by mid 60s and the real thrust to development came in 1971 with the establishment of Venkateswara Hatcheries Pvt Ltd. The Central Poultry Breeding Farms laid the foundation for the development of poultry industry during 1959. Other agencies such as ICAR (CARI) contributed much in the R&D sector.
Commercial PoultryIndia has emerged as the only country in the developing world a self-reliant, technology driven industry, with capability to produce every essential input for successful poultry farming including indigenous genetic resource and breeding, world class poultry vaccines and medicines, specific pathogen free eggs (SPF), farms and hatchery automation systems, pelleted feed, egg processing, poultry processing, nationwide network of disease diagnostic laboratories and facilities for entrepreneurial development and training in both private and public sectors.
Rural Poultry ProductionRural poultry production constitutes important component of agricultural economy in India, small poultry holder are practically capable of more significant contribution to alleviate malnutrition, poverty and unemployment. A spectacular progress has been made from subsistence to sustainable production system. Indian backyard population increase is only by 16% in the last 30 years from 60 to 70 million. China's 76% of total egg comes from rural backyard production. India requires both mass production as well as production by masses.
Egg ScenarioIndia produces 3.6% of global egg production, i.e., 61 million tonnes. The annual growth rate of egg is 5 to 8%. India has the lowest cost of egg production in the world at 2.55 US cents per egg.
Value added productsThe introduction of new poultry products and perceptible shift in eating habits are moving people to branded food such as chicken yummiez, cold cuts, breaded and coated snacks, marinated snacks, chicken nuggets, canned chicken curry, freeze dried chicken pulao, meat soup, powder omlette and scrambled egg mixtures, sandwich, pizza, burger and dial-a-chicken and fast food joints, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), McDonald's, Wimpy, Pizza Hut all these are going to change the palatability of the chicken consumer.
Medical usesChicken eggs are used to produce source of molecules to treat snakebite. Duck embryos are used in manufacturing anti-rabies vaccine. Diet eggs or designer eggs are going to boost special eggs for vitamin E substitution, Omega fatty acids and antioxidant requirements. Poultry eggs and meat have got sensorial, curative, nutritive and therapeutic potential. Poultry is labour intensive and has a potential to create 25,000 more jobs on the consumption of one more egg per capita and similarly 25,000 additional jobs on the consumption of 100 gm more chicken meat. By the year 2010 India is expected to produce 260 million layers (77700 million eggs) and 3500 million broilers (5.9 million tonnes). Per capita consumption of meat will be around 3.5 to 4.5 kg and eggs will be around 65 and it is expected to contribute Rs 60,000 crore. No agriculture sector is growing as fast as the Indian poultry, making it the most dynamic rapidly emerging sector of livestock economy. The export of poultry meat at present is worth Rs 150 crore and is expected to reach Rs 1,500 crore by 2010. Indian agriculture contributes 28 per cent to the GDP of which 17% is contributed by poultry. Poultry is the only industry where modern technology co-exists with the traditional poultry keeping because poultry technology is appropriate, adaptable, accessible, available and affordable both for the rich and the poor.
Recent positive developments of poultry industry
The poultry production and consumption in the domestic market is slated to grow. Indian poultry industry has been a major contributor to the food-processing sector in the country. From backyard activity to major commercial operation the poultry sector has undergone a paradigm shift.
Indian poultry industry has been growing at annual varying rates of 8-15% and this growth in the past few decades made India fifth largest producer of eggs and ninth largest producer of poultry broiler. At present the industry is estimated at over Rs 30,000 crore and is expected to grow over Rs 60,000 crore by 2010.
India produces 1,400 million chickens a year, which is close to 27 million a week, of which 95% is traded alive. According to a market report the poultry production and consumption in the domestic markets is slated to grow by 66% to approximately 2.3 million tonnes by 2010.
Poultry sector is one of the fastest growing industries of the Indian economy than any other sector contributing about $230 million to the Gross National Product. But in statistical terms the industry has reported a loss of over Rs 4,000 crore as an aftermath effect of the bird flu crisis.
The contribution of the small rural farmers points out the importance of integration of the poultry farming and the allied sector. Suguna Poultry Farm is the pioneer in poultry integration and contract poultry farming in India, with presence in nine states and membership of about 15,000 contract farmers. Suguna has set an example of integration and contract farming before the industry and has proved to be beneficial for the company. Integration could be the way forward for the entire industry towards expansion and success.
Presently 100% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is permitted in the food processing sector. Also FDI in food retailing, covering dairy, poultry, marine, vegetables and fruits might help the entire food processing industry grow. Poultry farming in India has transformed from a mere tool of supplementary income and nutritious food for the family to the major commercial activity generating the required revenue. The growth of the industry with steady production of 1,800 million kg of poultry meat, 40 billion egg per year and employment generation of about 3 million people indicates the future prospects for the industry. Changing food habits, rising income of the middle class Indian, presence of private players, rising market demand of the Indian poultry produce in the export market are some of the contributing factors to the growth of the industry.